Nutritionist, I recently bought a jar fish oilHealth food, please help me take a look, is it okay to eat two or three a day? The nutritionist took it over and looked startled and said, “This is cod liver oilIt is not fish oil, which can be poisonous if eaten in excess. “What! Cod liver oil? Isn’t cod liver oil the same as fish oil?” This is an example that Lin Mengyu, a nutritionist at Zhenxing Hospital, personally encountered. She said that although there is only one word difference between fish oil and cod liver oil, the sources and ingredients are very different, and people are easy to confuse them.
Lin Mengyu said that fish oil is mainly extracted from the adipose tissue of fish, while cod liver oil is extracted from the liver of fish. Fish oil contains DHA (22 – carbon 6 – enoic acid ) and EPA ( 20 carbon 5 enoic acid) fatty acid, cod liver oil contains vitamin A and vitamin D.
Fish oil: cleans blood vesselsCod liver oil: protect eyes, protect bones
DHA in fish oil is beneficial to eye vision and brain cell development, and can improve memory loss. Another study pointed out that DHA can reduce the occurrence of emotional diseases, including depression and hyperactivity, etc. As for EPA , it can reduce blood lipids and reducethrombusAnd anticoagulant effect, known as “vascular scavenger” said.
Yang Quelian, the head of the nutrition group of Taipei Veterans General Hospital , said that according to the recommendations of relevant societies in various countries, the daily intake of DHA plus EPA for an average adult needs to be about 400 mg to 600 mg . The intake must be twice that of an average adult , that is, 800-1200 mg a day. As for pregnant women, it is recommended to increase the intake of omega – 3 , of which DHA should be taken in 200-300 mg per day .
As for the vitamin A in cod liver oil, it is helpful for eyesight, and it can also improve dry eye syndrome and night blindness. Vitamin D is helpful for the development and supplement of bones, and has certain effects on the development of bones and teeth in children and the prevention of osteoporosis in the elderly. s help.
Fish oil: generally do not eat too muchCod liver oil: If you eat too much and accumulate in the body, it will be poisoned
Since both fish oil and cod liver oil contain so many elements that are beneficial to the human body, wouldn’t it be good to eat more of both oils? Yang Quelian pointed out that the general dosage of fish oil is not large, eating more will not cause too much problem for normal healthy people, but if you eat too much cod liver oil, the problem will be serious, especially some people mistakenly think that cod liver oil is fish oil. Ingestion is toxic.
Both vitamin A and vitamin D are fat-soluble, which is not the same as vitamin C , which is water-soluble. If water-soluble vitamins are over-taken, the body will excrete them, but fat-soluble vitamins are different. Excessive intake will accumulate in the liver and other organs in the body.
How to take vitamin A and vitamin D so as not to overdose? Yang Quelian said that the recommended adult intake of vitamin A is 600 micrograms per day for women and 500 micrograms for men , while the recommended adult intake of vitamin D is 10 micrograms per day for both men and women.
Yang Quelian further pointed out that if the excessive intake of vitamin A exceeds 5 times the recommended intake value , the skin will be allergic, dry and peeling, and cause hepatosplenomegaly, anorexia, joint pain and headache. If vitamin D exceeds 5 times the recommended intake value , The calcium in the blood will be too high, which will lead to cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Therefore, the intake of vitamin A and vitamin D should be within 2 times the recommended amount , which is a relatively safe range.
Fish oil: take before or after mealsCod liver oil: Take with meals
Whether it is fish oil or cod liver oil, as long as you know not to make a mistake and eat according to the recommended value and instructions, it is beneficial to the human body. Yang Quelian pointed out that because cod liver oil is fat-soluble, it is recommended to take it with meals, which can increase the absorption rate. As for the use of fish oil, it can be taken before or after meals, but some people are prone to nausea or gas when taking fish oil. Some also have diarrhea or hiccups with a fishy smell in the mouth. If you want to avoid these symptoms, it is recommended to eat with meals to minimize the problem.
Lin Mengyu suggested that before taking fish oil or cod liver oil, one must first distinguish clearly, and then read the recommended amount on the can. If it is recommended to take 1~2 capsules, it is more conservative to start with the recommended minimum dose, which is 1 capsule. rise.
Eating fish oil is mainly to ingest omega – 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. omega – 3 is an essential fatty acid for the human body. The human body cannot synthesize it in the body. It must be supplemented by external conversion. Therefore, to ingest omega – 3, you must eat fish oil ?
Natural food can also be easily supplemented
Lin Mengyu said that fish oil is extracted from fish. Of course, omega – 3 can also be obtained by eating fish directly. Deep-sea fish is quite rich in omega – 3. The public can choose more deep-sea fish with relatively high content, including mackerel and salmon , tuna, anchovies, saury and sardines. In addition, general seafood such as shrimp, squid and oysters also contain trace amounts of omega – 3.
In fact, omega – 3 is not only found in fish, but also in some plants. Yang Quelian said that the α – linoleic acid in plants is also a kind of omega – 3, which can be converted into DHA and EPA when it enters the body , but the conversion speed is relatively slow. In addition, dark green vegetables, especially spinach, cabbage , chrysanthemum chrysanthemum, radish and turnip, etc. produced in winter, because the low temperature is easy to make the plants The content of α – linolenic acid increases, which is the main source of omega – 3 intake for vegetarians.
As for vitamin A and vitamin D in cod liver oil , Lin Mengyu said that vitamin D can be obtained from milk, eggs, salmon, mackerel and other foods. Sun exposure is better than diet. With sunlight, the body can also synthesize vitamin D by itself . Vitamin A can be obtained from dairy products such as milk, eggs, and red-orange fruits and vegetables including carrots, red peppers, and papayas, which are rich in vitamin A or vitamin A precursor β-caroteneWait for food to be available.
If you don’t want to be too troublesome and don’t want to calculate the intake of vitamin A , 1 cup of milk, 1 egg, 3 cm x 3 cm cubes of carrots, or 4 to 5 pieces of papaya, change the mix every day. By eating both, you can get vitamin A. Because vitamin A will accumulate and store in the body, so a little bit of accumulation will not be excessive, and a certain amount can be maintained. It is the easiest way to supplement vitamin A from food.
Stop eating fish oil before anticoagulant surgery
Although compared with cod liver oil, fish oil has no doubts about excessive intake for healthy people, but there are still some groups of people who are not suitable for taking fish oil. Because fish oil has anti-coagulation function, if there is liver cirrhosis, the blood coagulation function will become poor. In addition, people with hemophilia should not eat fish oil, and those who usually take anticoagulant drugs such as aspirin should not eat fish oil.
In addition, if an operation is expected, it is recommended to stop taking fish oil 2 months before the operation , and pregnant women are advised to stop taking fish oil after 32 weeks of pregnancy in order to avoid difficult hemostasis during childbirth .